Cuttings are the method of cutting branches from a growing tree and
inserting them in soil to produce new plants. It is the most commonly used
method to propagate high quality bonsai material. The advantages of this
method include that branches cut from the original tree inherits the fine
qualities, and you can envision the bonsai's future shape from the branch.
Moreover, leaves may dwarf naturally or due to sudden mutation. You can
multiply bonsai plants with such leaves as well as beautiful leaves. If you
insert two-pronged branch or three-pronged branch, into soil, you can make
Sokan (twin-trunk) or Sankan (triple-trunk) bonsai trees. However, if the new
roots develop poorly, or the branch is inserted in soil at an unfitting angle,
then the lower part of the trunk and branches will not grow nicely. If you
adjust the inserting in time, or given the bonsai tree is still young even after
it has grown to some extent, timely corrections can still make the change.
The method will be more efficient if you use the actively growing undesirable
branches from pruning.
In general, the best time for cuttings is in spring when trees' growths
become gradually active. Cuttings in itself are easy as it is just inserting the
pruned branch into a hole bored in soil. The key issue is whether roots will
grow out after the branch is inserted. For this to happen, you should keep in
mind the following key points.
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Cuttings will create numerous trees that are hereditarily identical to the "
parent " tree or bonsai. By taking cuttings, you can create new trees from a
tree that contains the characteristics you consider to be important and
suitable for a bonsai tree to have. You can also start bonsai trees from
cuttings faster than from seeds. Some species of trees will produce a
rooted, growing tree - from a cutting - before the seeds of another tree can
even sprout! Saving you tons of time and, quite often, weeks of worry.
Key Points
  1. You should use new soil. You should rinse the soil clean so it does not
    contain organic matter since soil rich in nutrient substances can make
    plants rot easily.
  2. You should water the soil sufficiently in advance and let water pemeate
    the soil in whole. Let it sit for a while before inserting the branch.
  3. You should cut the branch with a sharp scissor to ensure the cross
    section is smooth. Also, to have bigger cross-section area you can
    make an oblique cut or make two cuts so the cross sections make a V-
  4. Meanwhile you should prune the leaves to reduce their quantity.
    Because the branch absorbs less water after being inserted in soil, you
    should accordingly reduce the dissipation of water through the leaves.
  5. You should soak the pruned branch in water between thirty minutes to
    an hour to let it absorb enough water. You need to do this because the
    branch may not be able to absorb enough water for a period after being
    inserted into soil.
It is better to insert the branches so that they cover
the entire soil surface. You can also insert branches
from various plants in the same pot. You should leave
the inserted branches in shades and supply them with
enough water every day.
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5. Seeds
3. Air Layering
4. Cuttings
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--Article: From University of Missouri; Extension
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